Art Nouveau Enamel Pendant

Art Nouveau Enamel Pendant

I thought you may enjoy seeing this absolutely gorgeous gilded 800 silver cloisonné enamelled filigree pendant just in the Elder and Bloom Store.

If you are interested in learning more about enamel techniques in antique jewellery, you may enjoy these articles here.

pendant1

SaveSave

International Names for Art Nouveau

French Art Nouveau poster

The ‘New Art’ or ‘Art Nouveau’ Movement (1890-1914) was known by a variety of other names internationally.  Although each country had their own name for and interpretation of the Art Nouveau style, there were certain chief characteristics which united this design movement.  In this post, I am simply going to list the names for Art Nouveau in several major countries as I believe this knowledge is useful in the study of antique and period jewelry.

‘New Art’ or ‘Art Nouveau’ – Great Britain

‘Art Nouveau’ – France

‘Jugendstil’ – Germany and Norway and most Nordic Countries

‘Tiffany Style’ – USA

‘Stile Liberty’ – Italy

‘Sezessionstil’ – Austria

‘Secense’ – Czech lands

‘Arte Nova’ – Portugal

Sources / further reading:

http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/history-of-art/art-nouveau.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_Nouveau

The Female Form in Art Nouveau Jewelry

Datei:Alfons Mucha - 1898 - Dance.jpg

Alfons Mucha, 1898
‘Dance’

Lady with Fan - Gustav Klimt

Gustav Klimt
Lady with Fan c. 1918

‘All art is erotic’ – Gustav Klimt

The Art Nouveau Movement (1890-1910) began at a time of great awakening in the attitudes and behaviors of Victorian era people.  Attitudes towards women were transforming rapidly and the early suffrage movements for women were already beginning in England. Women were experiencing more financial and political control and were breaking away from their traditional roles as objects to be repressed, controlled or utilized.  Femininity and sensuality now became core cultural values.  Gentle, flowing and frequently erotic sensibilities were expressed abundantly in art, design, literature and music. ‘The Art Nouveau Movement’, ‘Stile Liberty’, ‘Sezessionstil’, ‘The Aesethic Movement’, ‘The Arts and Crafts Movement’, ‘The Naturalism Movement’ and ‘Jugendstil’, along side the ‘Pre-Raphelites’, are just some of the terms given to or related to this cultural avalanche of beauty and art.

File:Lalique dragonfly.jpg

Work by Rene Lalique.

Jewelery, becoming altogether less structured in every way, was an expressive outlet for this new explosion of creativity. As women became free of the traditional restrictions of previous fashions, widely adopting ‘rational dress’ and looser hair styles, this new liberated female form was given expression in art and was a popular motif in the jewelry of the time. Long, flowing hair was the most commonly found feature as this seemed to be symbolic of all things feminine and carefree. Brooches and pendants were the most common type of jewelry to be decorated with the female form.

Rene Lalique Jewelry Pendant

Pendant, Rene Lalique

René Lalique. Glass and Metal Brooch. The cast and foiled golden-orange glass plaque depicts two crouching maidens among flowers and foliage.
Bonhams, Auction number 15236

The most popular female motif was the face of a young woman in profile, but the female form was expressed in every way, fully nude or loosely clothed.  Sometimes the woman would be presented with birds, flowers and insects; sometimes, as a hybrid creature.  Regardless of the form she took, she would always be shown to be romantic and ethereal, with the sublime beauty and grace that we love about all things Art Nouveau.

Pendant

Paris, 1901
Georges Van der Straeten
V&A Museum

Pendant

England, c. 1900-1901
A.C.C. Jahn
Pendant, partially gilded silver, ivory, opal and half-pearls
V&A Museum

Ring

England, 1901
A.C.C Jahn
Ring with chased gold and opal
V&A Museum 

Brooch of Leaves and Berries

Lalique, c. 1902, brooch ivory, enamels, gold, opals
Lalique Jewelry
Brooch, Lalique
Art nouveau pin by Catalonian jewelry maker Lluís Masriera.

Brooch by Lluis Masriera (1872-1958)

Sources / Further Reading:

https://pippatreevintage.wordpress.com/2013/02/13/the-art-nouveau-whiplash-motif/

http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/a/art-nouveau-and-the-erotic/ 

http://www.antiquevaluers.co.uk/old_harlequins/articles/nouveau.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women%27s_suffrage

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorian_dress_reform

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alfons_Mucha

http://rlalique.com/rene-lalique-biography

The Art Nouveau Whiplash Motif

Embroidery, Hermann Obrist: The Lone Cyclamen
Munich City Museum
note the Art Nouveau ‘Whiplash’ motif

Brooch

France, c. 1901

Brooch, enameled copper set with opals and pearls

V&A Museum

The Art Nouveau Movement (1890-1910) was a design movement defined by many motifs, but none more so than the Whiplash Motif. The whiplash and curved motifs of Art Nouveau are seen as universally characteristic and are an easy way of recognizing an Art Nouveau piece. (Arts and Crafts Movement Jewelery, which many would define as a cousin of Art Nouveau, also uses the whiplash motif to a slightly lesser extent. Also it is important to note that there are many other names for Art Nouveau that I will be discussing in future posts).

Art Nouveau interior, featuring a profusion of whiplash and curved motifs

Whilst not all Art Nouveau design pieces contain whiplash or curved motifs, they are generally considered the most commonly found design feature.  Some would say Art Nouveau curves have their roots in Rococo Scroll Work, others would say they are inspired by Japanese or Celtic design elements.  Whilst all of these are no doubt true, I have always thought of the curves of Art Nouveau design as originating from something deep within us and to be a reflection of our biological nature. Arguably, all design is exactly this, but the curves of Art Nouveau seems to emanate from our deepest levels rather than directly referencing other design movements. These spirals, curves and whiplash-like shapes can be found in both the natural and man-made worlds.

For example, have a look for the Art Nouveau-like curves in the following:

Fibonacci_curve

Now, spot the whiplash and curved motifs in the following beautiful Art Nouveau jewelry pieces:

Pendant
Pendant gold, enamel, opal, pearl, diamonds
Lalique, c.1901
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Pendant

France c. 1900, Lucien Gautrait.

Gold decorated with ‘plique-à-jour’ enamel and set with rose- and brilliant-cut diamonds,

opals and emeralds with an opal drop

V&A Museum

Pendant

Germany, c.1903

Enamelled gold, set with brilliant-cut diamonds, emeralds,a ruby, hung with a pearl.

V&A Museum

Brooch

France, c. 1903. George Fouquet.

Brooch, gold, silver, enamel, pearls and rose- and brilliant-cut diamonds

V&A Museum

Sources / further reading:

http://paterry.wordpress.com/2011/06/26/constructing-growth-spirals/

http://thetextileblog.blogspot.de/2009/05/art-nouveau-whiplash.html

http://binarybeam.blogspot.de/2012/04/art-nouveau-new-art.html

http://www.langantiques.com/university/index.php/Art_Nouveau_Jewelry

http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/a/art-nouveau-and-the-erotic/

http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/s/study-room-resource-art-nouveau/

The Eras of Jewelry Defined

Although there is some disagreement about precise dates and categories, these seem to be the most agreed upon definitions of the historical periods of antique and vintage fine and collectible jewelry  in the English speaking world.  Often these periods overlap and of course changes in styles can often be more nuanced and gradual than these categorizations might suggest.  However, for the practical purpose of understanding the history of antique jewelry, these are the best definitions as I see them.  I have also given an approximate overview of some of the basic characteristics of each period which I will be adding to over time, so if you find this useful as a reference please do keep checking back in.

Georgian Jewelry (1714-1837)

A GEORGIAN DIAMOND AND ENAMEL RING

Christie’s Sale 5388, 13 June 2012, London, King Street
A GEORGIAN DIAMOND AND ENAMEL RING

Some characteristics of Georgian jewelry:  gems set in gold / claw settings for paste / Motifs included bows, flowers, giardinetti, feathers, leaves, arrows, quivers, lyres / cannetille work / types of jewelry included stomachers, aigrettes, girandoles, chatelaines, buckles, buttons, pendeloque earrings, pairs of bracelets, necklaces secured by ribbons, slides and rings, enamel work/ Etruscan revival beginning 1830

Victorian Jewelry (1837 – 1901)

Victorian Jewelry can be further broken down to:

Early Victorian Romantic jewelry 1837-1860

Mid-Victorian Grand jewelry 1861-1880

Late Victorian Aesthetic jewelery 1880-1900

A Victorian coral demi-parure

Christie’s Sale 8127, 16 January 2013, London, South Kensington
A Victorian coral demi-parure

Some characteristics of Victorian jewelry: Gemstones such as diamonds, emeralds, coral, amethyst, garnet, turquoise / Tortoiseshell / Human hair / Sentimental and nostalgic items / Black and dark colored mourning jewelry / Matching sets (parures) / Cameos / pique / Jet / Revival themes that took their  inspiration from ancient cultures (Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Gothic, Renaissance, Assyrian, Etruscan), Canetille continued.

Arts & Crafts Jewelry 1894-1923

AN OPAL PENDANT

Christie’s sale 7634, The London Sale: Jewels, 10 December 2008, London, King Street
Arts & Crafts Opal Pendant

Some Characteristics of Arts & Crafts Jewelry:  Hand-worked / lack of mechanization / natural materials / simple designs / colorful uncut stones / rejection of Industrial Revolution / often silver

Art Nouveau Jewelry 1890 – 1914

Brooch/pendant, carved opal, demantoid garnet, diamonds, 18k yg, platinum, c. 1890, a circ carved opal depicting a sea nymph, rising/setting sun with circ-cut diamond center, and ocean waves, with grad oe diamond border above and demantoid-set yg foliate wreath border surmounted by two stylized fish below, three hidden pendant loops, sgd "Marcus & Co."

Brooch/pendant with carved opal, demantoid garnet, diamonds, 18k yellow gold, and platinum, c. 1890. A carved opal depicting a sea nymph with ocean waves by Marcus & Co.

Some characteristics of Art Nouveau jewelry: Curves / Natural motifs / Mythical creatures such as dragons, mermaids, fairies and sprites / Gems such as pearls, opal, moonstone, aquamarine, tourmaline, rose quartz, chalcedony, chyrsoprase, and amethyst / Enamel /Glass/The female form and face / Long pearl strands / no diamonds

Edwardian or Garland Jewelry 1901-1915

AN EDWARDIAN DIAMOND PENDANT

Christie’s Sale 7853, Jewels – The London Sale, 9 June 2010, London, King Street
EDWARDIAN DIAMOND PENDANT

Some characteristics of Edwardian or Garland Jewelry: More ostentatious display of wealth / diamonds, emeralds and rubies / bow, garland, leaf motifs / intricate detailing / platinum settings

Art Deco Jewelry (1920-1939)

An Art Deco diamond, emerald and onyx ring

Christie’s Sale 6704, 5 September 2012, London, South Kensington
Art Deco diamond, emerald and onyx ring

Some characteristics of Art Deco Jewelry: Bold geometric designs / Vertical lines / Contrasting primary colors / Gemstones included diamonds, black onyx, lapis lazuli, rubies, emeralds, sapphires, jade, torquoise, topaz / Cabochon and carved gemstones / Amber, bakelite, celluloid and enamel work.

Retro or Cocktail Jewelry (1940-1959)

18 karat gold, platinum, ruby and diamond clip brooch by Chaumet, circa 1945.
For more information see here.

Some characters of Retro or Cocktail Jewelry: Motifs included stylized flowers, animals and bows as well as mechanical motifs such as tank treads, padlocks and chains/ Enamel work / Jeweled brooches / Thin sheets of gold created to conserve metal whilst giving an impression of substances / Gemstones were often small and included diamonds, synthetic rubies and light sapphires / Rose gold / bold / inspired by Hollywood / chunky, raised gemstones / synthetic gems / patriotic themes / large and gold / brooches / wide bangles

Modernist Jewelry (1930-1960)

catphoto

Ed Wiener modernist jewelry sterling silver brooch with stone
C. late 1940’s – early 1950’s
Click on image for more information.

Some characteristics of Modernist Jewelry: Rejected the ‘fussiness’, feminine and decorative styles of Art Nouveau / Rejected the rigidity and structure of Art Deco / Inspired by ‘Art’ (sculpture and painting) / Often worked in silver and copper / No concern for value of materials, not used to express wealth / Used found objects / Surreal motifs /Geometric or biomorphic / Masculine / Semi-precious stones such as garnets and opals and unusual stones such as cat’s eye / African and cubist motifs / Primal forms / Unexpected materials such as acrylic and wood / Influenced by Bauhaus, Surrealist and Dadist / Hand-working and one of a kind designs

Sources / further reading:

http://www.collectorsweekly.com/fine-jewelry/modernist

http://www.mschon.com/Modernistjewelry.htm

http://www.trocadero.com/auermaf/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arts_and_Crafts_movement

http://www.vam.ac.uk/page/a/art-deco/

http://www.antiques-bible.com/retro-jewelry/