Categories of Brooches

A brooch can be defined as an item of jewelry which is attached to the clothing or hat, usually by means of a pin which may or may not have a clasp.

The different categories of brooches can generally be defined in the following ways:

Aiguillette (also aguillette, aiglet or aglets)

From the French for ‘needle’, aiguillettes were a type of ornamentation used to secure a ribbon to a dress.

In the first half of the 15th century, they came to be worn as an ornamentation in their own right.

Bar brooch

A bar brooch is any horizontal elongated brooch, often rectangular but not necessarily.  During the Victorian era, bar brooches tended to have a central motif or defined central decorative area. In the Edwardian era, bar brooches tended to be bordered with cut stones, pearls or decorative elements.  Art Deco bar brooches followed the Edwardian style with more geometric designs.

Brooch

Europe, c. 1910-1920
Bar brooch of gold and platinum set with diamonds
V&A Museum

Beauty Pin (also called Handy Pins)

These were small pins used to secure veils, cuffs, hats, scarves and lace.  They were often decorative.

A Pair of Enamel and Seed Pearl Oak Leaf Motif Beauty Pins. Photo Courtesy of Lang Antiques.

Bodice brooch

A bodice brooch is a brooch originally designed to be worn in the center of the bodice of a woman’s dress.  Early bodice brooches were sewn on to the clothing. Later, when pins and clasps developed this ceased.  After around 1920, bodice brooches became smaller and could be worn elsewhere, not necessarily in the center of the dress.

Brooch

Europe, c. 1700-1800
Bodice brooch, chrysoberyls and pink topazes set in silver
V&A Museum

Dress Clips

A dress clip can be defined as a brooch with a clip style back. These can be either the ‘double prong’ style clip, which pierces the clothing like a standard brooch pin or a metal back which holds the fabric by tension (in a similar way to a ‘clip earring’.) There are also ‘double dress clips’ which can be worn apart as matching items or worn together to create a larger brooch.  These were particularly popular during the Art Deco period.

Brooch

England, c. 1940
Dress clip with double prong backing, platinum set with diamonds
Cartier
V&A Museum

Double-clip brooch

England, c. 1930-1940
Back of double clip brooch, platinum set with brilliant, baguette and square-cut diamonds
V&A Museum

Fibula

A fibula was a decorative brooch used by the ancient Romans and other ancient cultures, usually to secure a cloak at the shoulders.  They were similar to a safety pin.  They were sometimes worn in the Victorian and Art Nouveau ears as part of the archeological revival fashions.

Fibula

Italy, c. 500 BC
Gold Fibula
V&A Museum

Fichu Pin (or Lace Pin)

A fichu or lace pin is a kind of brooch used to secure two ends of a scarf at the front.  ‘Fichu’ comes from the French for neckerchief.

Princess Mary wearing a Fichu Held by a Fichu Brooch.
Bartholomeus van der Helst, c.1652.

Jabot ( also called ‘sûreté’ or ‘cliquet’ pins.)

A ‘jabot’ brooch has decorative or jeweled ends and is worn in such a way that the center of the brooch is hidden under the clothing, revealing only the ends.  They were particularly worn in the middle of the 1700s and were worn to secure the ruffled pieces that men wore at the front of their clothing.  They emerged again in the Art Deco era when they were worn by women and worn on the label or at the front of a cloche hat.  They were particularly popular around 1925.

Pin

Europe or USA, c. 1920-1930
Jabot pin platinum set with coral, onyx and brilliant-cut diamonds
V&A Museum

Locket

A locket brooch would generally be a type of bodice brooch, which can open to contain hair or a picture.

Locket brooch

USA, c, 1850
Brooch, gold, rock
V&A Museum

Penannular (or Celtic Brooch).

Penannular means ‘having the shape or design of an incomplete circle.’ Penannular brooches are shaped like a ring which is not completely closed and have a pin. Many Celtic cloak pins are penannular brooches.

Brooch

Ireland, c. 1851
Penannular brooch, oxidised silver, parcel-gilt, set with pearls, ‘Irish diamonds’ and amethysts
V&A Museum

Ring Brooch

A ring brooch is defined by the way it fastens: the wearer pulls the cloth through the central hold, and the spears it with the pin.  Ring brooches originate from the medieval era and are found throughout Northern Europe.

Ring brooch

Sweden, c. 1830
Ring Brooch, silver and filigree
V&A Museum

Sévigné

A ‘sévigné’ is a type of brooch that was worn low on the bodice and was shaped like a bow. They were particularly popular during the 1700 and 1800s.  In the beginning they were symmetrical, flat bows and over the years they became more naturalistic, asymmetrical, sometimes with girandole settings of suspended gems, paste or pearls. They were named after the Marquise de Sévigné.

Portrait of Marie de Rabutin-Chantal, Marquise de Sévigné, wearing a ‘Sévigné brooch’.
Claude Lefebvre

Brooch

Western Europe, c. 1760-1770
Sevigne brooch, rock crystal set in gold and silver
V&A Museum

Brooch

Western Europe, c. 1830
Sevigne brooch, silver, gold, brilliant-cut diamonds, emeralds, ruby, pearls, and mother of pearl
V&A Museum

Stickpin

(also referred to as ‘pins’, ‘lapel pins’ or ‘scarf pins’ .)

This would be a long pin with a decorative top.  They would normally be worn vertically.  Traditionally they were to fasten scarves, but they came to be worn on the lapel, particularly by men.  The pin can be straight or twisted and sometimes come with a protective cap.

Scarf pin

England, c. 1865-70
Scarf pin with gold and powder granulation
V&A Museum

Pin

Paris, c. 1855
Stick pin, cast and enameled gold
François-Désiré Froment-Meurice
V&A Museum

Sources / further reading:

http://www.langantiques.com/university/index.php/Brooch

http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Encyclopedia_Americana_%281920%29/Brooch

http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/1911_Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica/Brooch

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